Your stimulus check: Who counts as a dependent? Children, adults and what Biden wants

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Child dependents for stimulus checks and taxes aren’t always the same thing. Here’s how it works.


Angela Lang/CNET

One of the most important factors determining how much money you got for the first and second stimulus payments — and how much you could get with a third stimulus check — has come down to your dependents. With the first two checks, the definition has specifically included dependents of a certain age range, while excluding many more who may be in your care. 

While the IRS has now hit its deadline to automatically send $600 payments through direct deposit and in the mail as paper checks  and EIP cards, understanding the eligibility requirements now and how they could change in the future, may help may sure you got the right amount in your first and second check, and can help you anticipate a third payment. (You can still receive any stimulus money you’ve owned when you file your federal taxes this year).

Here’s everything you need to know about stimulus checks and dependents, including which child and adult dependents are eligible for a payment that will add to your household’s total amount, and how age, custody, taxes and other exceptions make a difference. And here’s what we know about a President-elect Joe Biden’s plan for third stimulus check this year. This story was updated with new information.

Who does the IRS currently define as a qualified dependent for stimulus checks?

The first stimulus payment sent out in 2020 included $500 for dependents aged 16 and younger. There was no limit to the number of children who could count as dependents, as long as they were 16 or younger and claimed by the taxpayer on their tax return.

The $900 billion stimulus law also defines dependents as those age 16 and younger, leaving out those age 17 and older — including most college students and older relatives. (Here’s who counts as an eligible “adult” when it comes to stimulus checks.) 

Who does Biden’s plan define as a dependent?

Biden has proposed a $1.9 trillion COVID-relief plan that includes $1,400 stimulus checks. While Biden hasn’t offer many details on the potential third check, he did say adult dependents would be eligible. This group would include millions of college students, older adults and children of all ages with certain disabilities.


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How much money does the stimulus payment bring for each dependent? 

A dependent doesn’t receive their own stimulus check, but they can add funds to the household’s total. Children 16 years and younger who you claimed in your last tax filing adds a flat rate of $600 to the second check. That’s $100 more per dependent than in the first round of payments. The total amount of money you may get in a second stimulus payment would depend on your adjusted gross income, which you can also find on your taxes.

It isn’t clear how much money a third stimulus check would bring. Biden’s proposal doesn’t suggest a total. It would be up to negotiators of the bill to agree on the final financial terms. 

How is the definition of a dependent for stimulus payments different from your taxes?

In terms of federal tax regulations, a dependent can fall into two categories: a qualifying child or a qualifying relative. They don’t need to be children, or directly related to you, but they do have to meet certain requirements set out by the IRS. 

To claim a qualifying child as a dependent on your taxes, they must be either younger than 19 years old, or be a student younger than 24 years old at the end of the calendar year. If, however, your child is what the IRS calls “permanently and totally disabled,” you can claim them as a dependent no matter their age. 

To claim a qualifying relative — either a child or an adult — as a dependent, they must meet other IRS criteria. This might include an elderly relative who relies on you for care. (Find out more about what older adults need to know about stimulus checks, including those who may be qualifying relative dependents.)

Even if a dependent was claimed on your tax return, only a specific definition of “child dependent” was eligible to count toward the household’s money from the first round of stimulus checks due to the requirements of the CARES Act. The same is true for the second round under the $900 billion law: The child dependent must be age 16 or under as of your 2019 tax return to qualify for any payment. 

1040

Find your dependent on your 2019 tax form 1040.


IRS

Where are your dependents listed on your federal tax return? 

If you filed taxes in 2018 or later, you’ll find your dependents listed on form 1040, US Individual Income Tax Return. In the middle of the first page, you’ll see a box labeled Dependents. Dependents, along with their social security number, relationship to you and whether they qualify for a child tax credit or credit for other dependents, will be listed there. 

What if you have more dependents now than on your last tax return? 

If a child was born or adopted into your family in 2020 and therefore not listed on your 2019 tax return, you can claim them on your 2020 tax return to get the $500 dependent stimulus payment from the CARES Act or the $600 payment from the new bill sometime in 2021. 

You can also find out if you can claim a child or another relative as your dependent on your taxes with this tool from the IRS. 

What if you and your spouse share custody of a child, but you each file taxes separately? 

In this case, a child can still only be claimed as a dependent on one return in a tax year. To find out who should claim the child on their return, check out the IRS information on Qualifying Child of More Than One Person.

What if you’re divorced or legally separated and split custody of a dependent? 

Here’s where things can get confusing. A child can only be claimed as a dependent by one taxpayer for a tax year. Typically, the child counts as the dependent of the custodial parent — the parent who the child lived with for the longer period of time during the year, even if financial support came from the other parent. However, this isn’t always the case. Find out more from the IRS here.

One case that has cropped up with the first check has been non-married parents with joint custody who alternate years in which they claim each dependent child (or children) on their tax returns. In that case, both parents were eligible under the CARES Act to receive $500 per child (for a total of $1,000 per child between them both). 

Here’s how that works: If you are a parent who did not claim your child on your 2019 return, when you file your 2020 tax return, you may be able to claim up to an additional $500 per child on that return, if you qualify to claim the child as your qualifying dependent for 2020. 

Bottom line? A parent with 50/50 custody of one or more children who did not receive a $500 payment per child as part of the stimulus package can get that money along with their tax refund after filing 2020 taxes (in 2021), regardless of whether or not the other parent received that payment for the same children in the first round of checks. Because these payments are essentially tax credits, they do not have to be repaid to the IRS, even if both unmarried parents end up with a check for the same children. (You can read our story about how stimulus checks impact child support payments here. And here’s more information from the IRS about the qualifying child of more than one person.)

What if your dependent is a person of any age who is considered disabled? 

This is one area where the qualifications diverge for stimulus checks and taxes. If you have a child who the IRS defines as “permanently and totally disabled,” they can still count as a child dependent on your tax return, regardless of their age. The IRS says your child falls under this category if both of the following apply:

  • “They can’t engage in any substantial gainful activity because of a physical or mental condition.”
  • “A doctor determines the condition has lasted or can be expected to last continuously for at least a year or can lead to death.”

Children who are disabled and aged 17 years or older, however, are not eligible for the $600 allotted to child dependents, unless they were aged 16 or younger on your 2019 tax return. 

What if your child dependent passed away?

With the first check, if a dependent who was listed on your last tax return has since died, it’s likely that you were still sent the extra $500, and that they would be included in a second stimulus payment. The same is likely true for the second check. However, a payment made to someone who died before they received it should be returned to the IRS. You also cannot claim a stillborn child as a dependent, according to the IRS. 

For more, find out if you might be qualified for a second stimulus check and how soon another payment could arrive. If you still haven’t gotten a first stimulus check, you can find out how to claim a missing payment and learn how to report your missing check to the IRS.



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